Tuesday, August 11, 2015

I's & Eye's: Three States of Cognitive Consciousness (with new material 06-16)

For the sake of therapeutic use in the framework of the mindfulness-based cognitive psychotherapies (MBCTs), I began in 2012 to develop the notion that there are three basic states of perception combined with representative, lingual thought as well as (mostly visual and aural) processing. Three states of consciousness, or more accurately of perceptual and cognitive operation. 

I will discuss them in an approximate -- but inherently inaccurate -- nosology of "lowest," most common or basic state that most everyone uses daily, to the "highest," least common, and most "evolved" state that one becomes able to use when one has sufficient experience using the Vipassana-style, mindfulness meditations common to both Tibetan Buddhism and the mindfulness-based cognitive psychotherapies like DBT, ACT, MBBT, MBSR and 10 StEP.

I will also reduce the three states to brief notations that can be easily recalled by those who evolve sufficiently to be able to observe to notice to recognize to acknowledge to accept to own to appreciate to understand their empirical and cognitive operations. 

The three notations are:

1) I-Eye (which may also be inconized with the letter I, a mathematical minus sign, and the shape of an eyeball, which is exactly what the word "eye" is meant to represent: vision, or more broadly, perception);

2) Eye>I (which may be iconized with the eyeball, and the right-pointing arrow indicating directional flow from the eyeball -- or pure perception -- to the I, self, or ego); and

3) I+Eye (which is similarly iconized).


1) I-Eye is the state of being locked out of conscious perception of what is and in mental appraisal of what is perceived according to some combination of conscious and (for most of us, unconscious) belief. This is the state of complete "egotism" and refutation of sensory, empirical perception in favor of verbal explanation, evaluation, interpretation, assessment, or analysis or and/or attribution of meaning to perceived events... without further resort to empirical observation, noticing, recognition or acknowledgement. 

In practice, this state rarely exists in the "normal" human mind. While most people do perceive and process phenomena largely in the I-Eye state of consciousness, they will utilize Eye>I and I+Eye on a regular basis. More so if they are scientists, medical professionals, professional athletes, race drivers or attorneys who have to utilize the Eye>I and I+Eye to function adequately in their occupations.  

But in the neurotic human mind it is the polarity toward which mental operations gravitate, owing to a powerful, largely unconscious need to explain phenomena according to beliefs, ideas, ideals, assumptions, convictions, codes, rules, requirements, dogma and other internalized mental constructs... so as to prevent having to experience ostensibly "intolerable" affective sensations and/or emotions.

And in the psychotic human mind, I-Eye describes the "learned helpless" and/or paranoid-delusional ideation of an appraisal system stuck "inside" a box of its own design and construction, without resort to observation of what is actually so in the world, either "out there" or in the person's internal, corporeal, body space. If one is wholly dominated by the I-Eye state of consciousness, there is no accurate sense of external or internal reality; there are only ideas about it. 

2) Eye>I is the diametrically opposite state (vs. I-Eye) of being wholly locked into complete empirical observation of ongoing, current phenomena with no "contamination" or "corruption" by any beliefs, ideas, ideals, assumptions, convictions, codes, rules, requirements, dogma and other internalized mental constructs stored in verbal or sensory memory. It is pure perception. 

It is also, as the Sufis, Taoists, Buddhists, Hindus and other "high Brahmans" like to say, "timeless" or "out of time" because the perception is locked into the current moment as a series of ongoing current moments experienced and then immediately discarded so that perception of the next moment is not distorted, contaminated, adulterated, corrupted or otherwise effected in any manner. 

In actual practice, full-time Eye>I operation is itself an ideal. It is nearly impossible, though some Buddhist meditators claim to be able to do so, reaching a state called "nirvana," which is experienced as "total bliss" as the result of complete detachment from earthly or material concerns.

3) I+Eye is the state of attempting to retain what is experienced in the Eye>I state as  "memory," or "lessons," or "experience." In theory, one might be able to retain such experience "100% perfectly," but in actual practice, the very operation of nervous system will begin to adulterate, contaminate or corrupt the memory-stored lesson or experience immediately, and ever more so as time marches on. 

Proof of this is often demonstrated by having a dozen or more people stand in a circle. One is told an unfamiliar ten-word phrase and asked to whisper it to the next person. By the time it reaches the starting point, it will invariably be different from the original phrase or sentence. 

This is called "perceptual degredation via representation" (or, as McGilchrist calls it, "re-present-ation"), and it cannot be overcome in any manner we yet know of by those who are not skilled Vipassana- or Zen-style meditators.

Now, in actual practice, none of these three states actually exists over any period of time beyond a fraction of a second, and two of them not at all... ever. I-Eye and I+Eye exist only as metaphorical concepts for the sake of conceptual explanation. And even Eye>I exists only momentarily. It cannot be ongoing at the neuro-anatomical, neuro-physiological or neuro-chemical levels. But I-Eye and I+Eye exist conceptually as polarities one can utilize to convey the notion of absolute cognitive dysfunction vs. absolute cognitive functionality, even though neither actually exists.

In fact what exists over any length of time is a fluid activity I have called "hijacking" of the 

a) post-perception cognition (in the I+Eye) or even the 
b) pure perception (in the Eye>I) by pure, belief-based explanation. 

This is symbolized thus: 

a) I-Eye ^ I+Eye or 
b) I-Eye ^ Eye>I+Eye. 

(The caret sign "^" is used here to indicate that I-Eye "takes over" or "runs off with" the perception and adulterates it on the way to (ostensibly) pure recollection. (Very small children may not do this, but as soon as they start to have memories of past events -- let alone hear words and attach meanings to them -- their minds begin to hijack, run off and adulterate.)

Not truly "knowing" how non-lingual animals "think," we don't know what happens or does not happen in this regard, but we can at least afford to presume that they have sufficient memory and associative capacities to be able to confound their experiences... especially under stress

But that leads conveniently to the next point. And it is this: 

Under stress, all three states of cognitive consciousness will become degraded: Eye>I will see, hear or feel things that actually did not occur... or... fail to see, hear or feel things that did occur. I-Eye will mis-interpret, mis-evaluate, mis-assess, mis-judge, etc. And I+Eye will store ostensible "pseudo-memories" of observed events that never be entirely accurate. In fact those memories will be far more fragmented and less accurate under stress than they are even under normal conditions of I-Eye hijacking and contamination. 

There is in fact such a thing as false memory syndrome (FMS), and it tends to occur in people who have post-traumatic stress disorder. This is the result of having been overloaded with unmanageable levels of sensory stimulation and/or inability to tolerate what was perceived owing to the effects of their internalized beliefs, ideas, ideals, assumptions, convictions, codes, rules, requirements, dogma and other internalized mental constructs upon their explanation, evaluation, interpretation, assessment, or analysis or and/or attribution of meaning of those events.

But even when the stress-impacted memories are not truly "concocted" (as in FMS), they will be fragmented into components usually defined by specific sensory input channels, e.g.: vision, hearing, smell, taste and somato-sensory "gut feeling," as well as bits and pieces of recalled heat, chill, pressure, pain, etc. 

This, by the way, appears to be precisely what occurs in the minds of schizophrenics during childhood and adolescence owing to genetically and/or epigentically pre-disposed over-sensitivity along the afferent neural tracks leading from their sense organs to their emotion regulation centers. In that "limbic" emotion-processing area, the actual (or perceived) hyper-stimulation coming to the brain through the insula runs into the programmed instructions in the amygdala relative to what is threatening vs. what is not. Once that occurs, two very signifcant things occur: 

1) the hypothalamus gets a jolt from the amygdala that is too much for it to handle, it slams on the pituitary gland, and the pituitary whacks on the adrenal cortices to set off the fight or flight syndrome in the autonomic nervous system (ANS); and

2) the hippocampus becomes too saturated with input on too many "channels" to be able to feed the neural energy upwards in a properly codified manner to the memory banks in the neocortex.


1) the ANS is sent into severe sympathetic pitch; and

2) the brain will not have any organized, cohesive, ,multi-track, sense-making memory of what happened. (The brain will know, however, that something happened and have powerful but only partially connected emotions about it.)

In most people, that series of jolts will be quickly overridden by relatively functional operations of the neo-cortical Eye>I, I+Eye and even the I-Eye, if it is "well programmed" to deal with that particular stressful event. In the schizophrenic, however, the I-Eye is so adulterated, contaminated and corrupted with previously "dumped" and still disorganized misinformation that it will hijack the I+Eye and even the Eye>I operations governed mostly by the neo-cortex above and beside our eyeballs. 

And when that occurs, sense-making from the senses -- plus conceptual input stored relatively in the I+Eye (for "better") or I-Eye (for "worse") -- will be disrupted and manifested as hallucinations, delusions and "strange" explanations rooted in a highly corrupted I-Eye set-up.

But even in most people -- and certainly in the majority of us who are at least minimally "neurotic" owning to unprocessed, stressful life events -- I-Eye hijacking will take place, causing "conflicts" between various, embedded I-Eye mis-conceptions, as well as I-Eye conceptions vs. I+Eye "experience" and even with Eye>I perceptions as they occur

We see this daily in those who are mildly obsessive-compulsive when they continue to smoke, drink, drug, gamble, eat, over exercise, under-exercise, chase "bad ass" men (or women), walk out on relatively functional partners, hang in there in wretched marriages, self-harm, etc., etc., etc.

I have found that those who adopt these simple conceptual labels for their cognitive states in company with use of the 10 StEPs of Emotion Processing (see http://pairadocks.blogspot.com/2015/04/the-10-steps-of-emotion-processing.html) are able to move very quickly through DBT distress tolerance into emotion regulation, as well as CBT thought questioning and revision.

- - - - - - - - -

Further discussion added 05-05-16 upon reading the following in Batchelor, S.: Buddhism Without Beliefs: A Contemporary Guide to Awakening, New York: Riverhead / Penguin, 1997. "The denial of self [in formalistic, procedural meditation] challenges only the notion of a static self independent of body and mind... This notion of a static self is the primary obstruction to the realization of our unique potential as an individual human being. By dissolving this fiction through a centered vision of the tranciency [sic], ambiguity and contingency of experience, we are freed to create ourself [sic] anew."

Since this is (to me, anyway) a very significant sentence with respect to the understanding mindfulness and its upshots, it seems useful to explore / observe > notice / perceive > recognize / identify > acknowledge > accept > own > digest what is about it. 

I-Eye and I-Eye^I+Eye are clearly "static selves." I+Eye (and even I-Eye^I+Eye) may "evolve" over time, but even I+Eye is time-bound. It became what it is at a point in time that is forever in the past at the "port of entry" or "receiving dock" of that moment of dis-cover-y. But it is henceforth and forever caught at the memory of that dis-cover-y. I-Eye can only store conclusions made at an increasingly distant moment in the past. It's ability to reason on the basis of those empirical observations is enhanced, but the results of its reasoning are not the functional equivalent of further observation and dis-cover-y. 

Eye>I+Eye may be an edified or conceptually informed retainer of what was observed, thus being relatively or comparatively more plastic and amenable to change, but Eye>I by itself is pure observation, embodies complete and everlasting flux, as well as impermanence. There is "ego" in I-Eye and I+Eye. There is no ego whatsoever in Eye>I. It has no "stake" or "dog in the fight." Eye>I neither holds nor retains any memory or conclusion thereabout. 

Eye>I+Eye is quite literally Krishnamurti's "observer as the observed" and vice-versa, because it retains or "holds" objects after the event or action of its subjectivity. Eye>I, however, holds no objects. It is nothing but subjectivity. It only exists phenomenologically. It has no sense of itself because there is no retained or held self to objectify. It is merely empirical awareness or unobstructed consciousness without any connection to previous experience. It exists outside of time. 

Resources & References

Aguirre, B.; Galen, G.: Mindfulness for borderline personality disorder: relieve your suffering using the core skills of dialectical behavior therapy, Oakland CA: New Harbinger, 2013. 

Alanen, Y.: The Family in the Pathogenesis of Schizophrenic and Neurotic Disorders, in Scandinavian Archives of Psychiatry, No. 42, 1966.

Antoniak, S.: Inmates with PTSD have higher scores for mood, anxiety, somatoform, substance use, psychotic, eating, conduct, and adjustment disorders, in Clinical Psychiatry News, Vol. 38, No. 1, January 2010.

Bandura, A.: Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1997.

Basco, M. R.; Rush, A. J.: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Bipolar Disorder, New York: Guilford Press, 1996.

Baumeister, R.; Heatherton, T.: Self-Regulation Failure: An Overview, in Journal of Psychological Inquiry, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1996.

Bearden, C.; Hoffman, K.; Cannon, T.: The neuropsychology and neuroanatomy of bipolar affective disorder: a critical review, in Bipolar Disorders: An International Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology, Vol. 3, No. 3, June 2001.

Beck, A.: Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders, New York: Penguin-Meridian, 1976.

Beck, A.; Freeman, A.: Cognitive Theory of the Personality Disorders, New York: Guilford Press, 1990.

Beck, A.; Wright, F.; Newman, C.; Liese, B.: Cognitive Therapy of Substance Abuse, New York: The Guilford Press, 1993.  

Begley, S.: Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain: How Science Reveals our Extraordinary Potential to Transform Ourselves, New York: Ballantine Books, 2007.

Berger, P.; Luckman, T.: The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, New York: Doubleday, 1966.

Bien, T.; Bien, B.: Mindful Recovery: A Spiritual Path to Healing from Addiction; New York: Wiley & Sons, 2002.

Block, S.; Block, C.: Come to Your Senses: Demystifying the Mind-Body Connection, New York: Atria Books / Beyond Words (Simon & Schuster), 2005, 2007.  

Block, S.; Block, C.: Mind-Body Workbook for PTSD, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2010. 

Block, S.; Block, C.: Mind-Body Workbook for Anger, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2013. 

Bond, A.; Mason, H.; et al: Embodied health: the effects of a mind–body course for medical students, in Medical Education Online, Vol. 18, 2013; DOI:10.3402/meo.v18i0.20699

Bowen, M.: A Family Concept of Schizophrenia, in Jackson, D., ed.: The Etiology of Schizophrenia, London: Basic Books, 1960.

Brach, T.: Radical Acceptance: Embracing Your Life with the Heart of a Buddha, New York: Random House / Bantam, 2004.

Brown A.; Marquis, A.; et al: Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Counseling, in Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 91, No. 1, January 2013.

Carlson, N.: Physiology of Behavior, 7th Ed., Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The Effects of Childhood Stress Across the Lifespan, Atlanta, GA: CDC, 2008.  

Chapman, A.; Gratz, K.; Tull, M.: The Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Workbook for Anxiety: Breaking Free from Worry, Panic, PTSD & Other Anxiety Symptoms, Oakland CA: New Harbinger, 2011.

Chodron, P,: The Places That Scare You: A Guide to Fearlessness in Difficult Times, Boston: Shambhala, 2001. mindfulness

Coltheart, M.: The cognitive [vs. neural] level of explanation, in Australian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 64, No. 1, March 2012.

Cozolino, L.: The Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Building and Rebuilding the Human Brain, New York: W. W. Norton, 2002.

Cullen, A.; Zunszain, P.; et al: Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: Relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition, in Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol. 46, Aug 2014. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.03.010 David, A.: Basic Concepts in Neuropsychiatry, in Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry: A Textbook of Neuropsychiatry, 5th Ed., London: Blackwell, 2009.

Davidson, R.; Lutz, A.: Buddha’s Brain: Neuroplasticity and Meditation, in IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan 2008.

DeBellis, M.: Developmental Traumatology: Neurobiological Development in Maltreated Children with PTSD, in Psychiatric Times, Vol. 16, No. 11, 1999.

Deikman, A.: The Observing Self: Mysticism and Psychotherapy, Boston: Beacon Press, 1982.

De Mello, A.: Awareness: The Perils and Opportunities of Reality, New York: Doubleday / Image, 1990.

Dimeff, L.; Koerner, K.: Dialectal Behavior Therapy in Clinical Practice: Applications Across Disorders and Settings, New York: The Guilford Press, 2007.

Dyer, W.: Your Erroneous Zones, New York: Avon Books, 1977, 1993.

Ellis, A.; Harper, R.: A Guide to Rational Living, North Hollywood, CA: Melvin Powers, 1961.

Ellis, A.; Becker, I.: A Guide to Personal Happiness, North Hollywood, CA: Melvin Powers, 1982.

Ellis, A.; Dryden, W.: The Practice of Rational Emotive Therapy, New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1987.

Ellis, A.: Overcoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and Behaviors: New Directions for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, New York: Promethius Books, 2001.
Essex, M.; Boyce, W. T.; et al: Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence, in Child Development, Vol. 84, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2011.

Esterson, A.: The Leaves of Spring: Schizophrenia, Family and Sacrifice, London: Tavistock, 1972.

Esterson, A.; Cooper, D.; Laing, R.; Results of Family-oriented Therapy with Hospitalized Schizophrenics, in British Medical Journal, Vol. 2, 1965. 

Flavell, J.: Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry, in American Psychologist, Vol. 34, No. 10, Oct 1979.

Follette, V.; Pistorello, J.: Finding Life Beyond Trauma: Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Heal from Post-Traumatic Stress and Trauma-Related Problems, Oakland: New Harbinger, 2007.

Forsyth, J.; Eifert, G.: The Mindfulness and Acceptance Workbook for Anxiety: A Guide to Breaking Free from Anxiety, Phobias, and Worry Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2008.

Forward, S.: Toxic Parents: Overcoming their Hurtful Legacy and Reclaiming Your Life, New York: Bantam Books, 1989.

Forward, S.: Emotional Blackmail: When the People in Your Life Use Fear, Obligation and Guilt to Manipulate You, New York: HarperCollins, 1997.

Franklin, T.; Russig, H.; Weiss, I.; et al: Epigenetic Transmission of the Impact of Early Stress Across Generations, in Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 68, No. 5, May 2010.

Freud, A.: The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense, London: Hogarth Press and Institute Friday, N.: My Mother / Myself, New York: Delacourt Press, 1977.

Friedman, M.: Post-Traumatic and Acute Stress Disorders: The latest assessment and treatment strategies, 4th Ed., Kansas City, MO: Dean Psych Press dba Compact Clinicals, 2006.

Friedman, M.: PTSD and Related Disorders, in Stein, D.; Friedman, M.; Blanco, C.: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

Gazzaniga, M.; Ivry, R.; Mangun, G.: Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind, 2nd Edition, New York: W.W. Norton, 2002.

Goleman, D.: Emotional Intelligence, New York: Bantam, 1980. mindfulness

Goleman, D.: The Meditative Mind: The Varieties of Meditative Experience, New York: Putnam & Sons, 1988.

Goyal, M.; Singh, S.; Sibinga, E.; et al: Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-being, in JAMA Internal Medicine, Vol. 174, No. 3, March 2014; DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13018 Hanson, R.; Mendius, R.: Buddha’s Brain: The Practical Neuroscience of Happiness, Love and Wisdom, Oakland: New Harbinger, 2009.

Harris, R.; Hayes, S.: ACT Made Simple: An Easy-to-Read Primer on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2009.

Hart, W.: The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation as Taught by S. N. Goenka, San Francisco: Harper-Collins, 1987.

Hayes, S.; Strosahl, K.; Preston, K.: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An Experiential Approach to Behavior Change, New York: Guilford Press, 1999, 2003.

Hayes, S.; Follete, V.; Linehan, M.: Mindfulness and Acceptance: Expanding the Cognitive-Behavioral Tradition, New York: Guilford Press, 2004.

Hayes, S.; Smith, S.: Get Out of Your Mind and Into Your Life: The New Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2005.

Heim, C.; Nemeroff, C.: The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: pre-clinical and clinical studies, in Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 49, 2001.

Heim, C.; Nemeroff, C.: Neurobiology of early life stress: clinical studies, in Seminar on Clinical Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 4, 2002.

Henry, J.: Pathways to Madness, New York: Random House, 1965.

Herman, J. L.: Trauma and Recovery, New York: Basic Books, 1992.

Hirschfeld, R.; Wagner, K. D.; Ghaemi, S. N.; et al: Practical Treatment Strategies for the Successful Management of Bipolar Disorder, in Clinical Psychiatry News, sponsored supplement, Jan 2008.

Hoffer, E.: The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements, New York: Harper and Row, 1951, 1966. 

Holzel, B.; Carmody, J.; Vangel, M.; et al: Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density, in Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Vol. 191, No. 1, January 2011.

Horney, K.: The Neurotic Personality of Our Time, New York: W. W. Norton, 1937, 1955.

Horwitz, B.; Neiderhiser, J.: Gene-Environment Interplay, Family Relationships, and Child Adjustment, in Journal of Marriage & Family, Vol. 73, No. 4, August 2011.

Huttenlocher, P.: Neural Plasticity: The Effects of Environment on the Development of the Cerebral Cortex, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002. Epigenetics.

Hyakawa, S.; Hayakawa, A.; MacNeil, R.: Language in Thought and Action (5th Ed.), New York, Harvest Original, 1991. 

Indovina, I.; Robbins, T.; Núñez-Elizalde, A.; et al: Fear-Conditioning Mechanisms Associated with Trait Vulnerability to Anxiety in Humans, in Neuron, Vol. 69, No. 3, 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.12.034

Johnson, S.; Ballister, C.; Joiner, T.: Hypomanic vulnerability, terror management, and materialism, in Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 38, 2005.

Johnson, S.: Therapist’s Guide to Clinical Intervention: The 1-2-3’s of Treatment Planning, 2nd Ed., London, UK: Elsevier / Academic Press, 2004.

Jongsma, A.; Peterson, L. M.; Bruce, T.: The Complete Adult Psychotherapy Treatment Planner, 3rd Ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

Jackson, D. (ed.): The Etiology of Schizophrenia: Genetics / Physiology / Psychology / Sociology, London: Basic Books, 1960.

Jonson-Reid, M.; Kohl, P.L..; Drake, P.: Child and Adult Outcomes of Chronic Child Maltreatment, Pediatrics, Vol. 129 , No. 5, 2012; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-2529

Kabat-Zinn, J.: Mindfulness Meditation: Health benefits of an ancient Buddhist practice, in Goleman, D.; Gurin, J., editors: Mind/Body Medicine, New York: Consumer Reports Books, 1993.

Kabat-Zinn, J.: Coming to Our Senses, Healing Ourselves and the World Through Mindfulness, New York: Hyperion, 2005.

Karatoreos, I.; McEwen, B.: Annual Research Review: The neurobiology and physiology of resilience and adaptation across the life course, in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 54, No. 4, April 2013.

Kaszniak, A., et al: Toward a Science of Consciousness, Editions I, II and III, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996, 1998, 1999.

Kelleher, I.: Childhood Trauma and Psychosis in a Prospective Cohort Study: Cause, Effect, and Directionality, in American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 170, No. 7, July 2013. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12091169

Khantzian, E: The self medication hypothesis of substance use disorders: a reconsideration and recent applications, in Harvard Review of Psychiatry, Vol. 4, No. 5, Jan-Feb 1997.

King, A.; Erickson, T.; Giardino, N.; et al: A Pilot Study of Group Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for Combat Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), in Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 30, No. 7, July 2013; DOI:10.1002/da.22104

Knaus, W.: The Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2008.

Koob, G.: Allostatic view of motivation: implications for psychopathology, in Motivational Factors in the Etiology of Drug Abuse, at the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Vol. 50, edited by Bevins, R.; Bardo, M.; Lincoln NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.

Koob, G.: A Role for Brain Stress Systems in Addiction, in Neuron, Vol. 59, No. 1, July 2008.

Koob, G.: Neurobiology of Addiction, in Focus, Vol. 9, December 2011.

Koopmans, M.: Schizophrenia and the Family: Double Bind Theory Revisited, presented at the National Council on Family Relations, 1995; the American Psychological Assn., 1995; and the International Congress of Psychology, Montreal, 1996.

Korzybski, A.: Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics, 4th Ed., New York: Institute of General Semantics, 1958.

Kramer, J.: The Passionate Mind: A Manual for Living Creatively with One's Self, Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1974.

Kramer, J.; Alstad, D.: The Guru Papers: Masks of Authoritarian Power, Berkeley, CA: Frog, Ltd., 1993.

Kramer, J.; Alstad, D.: The Passionate Mind Revisited: Expanding Personal and Social Awareness, Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 2009.

Krishnamurti, J.: Education and the Significance of Life, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, (1953) 1975.

Krishnamurti, J.; Luytens, M.: The Krishnamurti Reader, New York: Penguin Arcana, (1954, 1963, 1964) 1970.

Krishnamurti, J.; Huxley, A.: The First & Last Freedom, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, (1954) 1975.

Krishnamurti, J.: As One Is: To Free the Mind from All Conditioning, Prescott AZ: Hohm Press, (1955) 2007.

Krishnamurti, J.; Rajagopal, D.: Commentaries on Life, 1st Series, Wheaton IL: Theosophical Publishing, (1956) 1973.

Krishnamurti, J.: Rajagopal, D.: Commentaries on Life, 2nd Series, Wheaton IL: Theosophical Publishing, (1956) 1976.

Krishnamurti, J.: Rajagopal, D.: Commentaries on Life, 3rd Series, Wheaton IL: Theosophical Publishing, (1956) 1967.

Krishnamurti, J.; Luytens, M.: Freedom from the Known, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1969.

Krishnamurti, J.; Luytens, M.: The Second Penguin Krishnamurti Reader, New York: Penguin Arcana, 1970.

Krishnamurti, J.: Krishnamurti’s Notebook, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, (1961) 1976.

Krishnamurti, J.: The Awakening of Intelligence, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1973, 1987.

Krishnamurti, J.: On God, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992.

Krishnamurti, J.: On Fear, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992.

Krishnamurti, J.: On Love and Loneliness, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993.

Krishnamurti, J.: The Book of Life: Daily Meditations with Krishnamurti, New York: HarperCollins, 1995.

Krishnamurti, J.: Total Freedom: The Essential Krishnamurti, New York: HarperCollins, 1996.  

Kubzansky, L.; Bordelois, P.; Hee Jin Jun; et al: The Weight of Traumatic Stress, in JAMA Psychiatry, Vol. 71, No. 1, January 2013; DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2798

Laing, R. D.: The Divided Self, London: Tavistock, 1959.

Laing, R. D.; Esterson, A.: Sanity, Madness and the Family, London: Tavistock, 1964.

Laing, R. D.: The Politics of Experience, London: Tavistock, 1967.

Laing, R. D.: Self and Others, 2nd Edition, London: Tavistock, 1969.

Laing, R. D.: The Politics of The Family and Other Essays, London, Tavistock, 1969.

Lang, A.: What Mindfulness Brings to Psychotherapy for Anxiety and Depression, in Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 30, No. 5, May 2013.

Lazar, S.; Kerr, C.; Wasserman, R.; Gray, J.; et al: Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness, in Neuroreport, Vol. 16, No. 17, Nov 2005.

Lazar, S.; Bush, G.; Gollub, R.; et al: Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation, in Neuroreport, Vol. 11, No. 7, May 2000.

LeDoux, J.: The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

LeDoux, J.: The Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are, New York: Penguin, 2002.

Lejeune, C.: The Worry Trap: How to Free Yourself from Worry & Anxiety Using Acceptance & Commitment Therapy, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2007.   

Levine, P.: In An Unspoken Voice: How the Body Releases Trauma and Restores Goodness, Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2010.

Levine, S.: A Gradual Awakening, New York: Anchor Books / Doubleday, 1979, 1989.

Levine, S. & O.: Who Dies? An Investigation of Conscious Living and Conscious Dying, New York: Doubleday, 1982.

Levy, Y.; Levy, D.; Barto, A.; Meyer, J.: A Computational Hypothesis for Allostasis: Delineation of Substance Dependence, Conventional Therapies, and Alternative Treatments, in Frontiers in Psychiatry, Vol. 4, December 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00167

Lidz, R.; Lidz, T.: The family environment of schizophrenic patients, in American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 106, 1949.

Lidz, T.:  The Origin and Treatment of Schizophrenic Disorders, New York: Basic Books, 1973.

Lidz, T.; Fleck, S., Cornelison, A.: Schizophrenia and the Family, 2nd Ed.; New York: International Universities Press, 1985.

Lifton, R.: Methods of Forceful Indoctrination, in Stein, M.; Vidich, A.; White, D. (editors): Identity and Anxiety: Survival of the Person in Mass Society, Glencoe, IL: The Free Press of Glencoe, Illinois, 1960.

Linehan, M.: Cognitive–Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder, New York: Guilford Press, 1993.

Lorber, M.; Egeland, B.: Parenting and Infant Difficulty: Testing a Mutual Exacerbation Hypothesis to Predict Early Onset Conduct Problems, in Child Development, Vol. 82, No. 6, November 2011.

Lupien, S., Gaudreau, S., Tchiteya, B., Maheu, F., Sharma, S., Nair, N., et al: Stress-Induced Declarative Memory Impairment in Healthy Elderly Subjects: Relationship to Cortisol Reactivity, in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 82, No. 7, 1997.

Lupien, S.; Maheu, F.; et al: The Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones on Human Cognition: Implications for the Field of Brain and Cognition, in Brain & Cognition, Vol. 65, No. 3, 2007.

Lupien, S.: Brains Under Stress, in Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2009.

Lupien, S.; McEwen, B.; Gunnar, M.; Heim, C.: Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition, in Nature Reviews - Neurosciences, April 29, 2009. 

Lykken, D.: The Case for Parental Licensure, in Millon, T.; Simonsen, E.; Birket-Smith, M.; Davis, R.: Psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Violent Behavior, Guilford Press, 1998.

Mansell, W.; Rigby, Z.; et al: Do current beliefs predict hypomanic symptoms beyond personality style? Factor analysis of the hypomanic attitudes and positive predictions inventory (HAPPI) and its association with hypomanic symptoms in a student population, in Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 64, No. 4, April 2008.

Maret, S.: Frank Lake's Maternal-Fetal Distress Syndrome: An Analysis, Dissertation - Clinical Theology Association, St Mary's House, Church Westcote, Oxon, England, OX77SF, 1996.

Marquez, C.; Poirier, G.; et al: Peripuberty stress leads to abnormal aggression, altered amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity and increased prefrontal MAOA gene expression, in Translational Psychiatry, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2013. 

Marra, T.: Depressed & Anxious: The Dialectical Behavior Therapy Workbook for Overcoming Depression & Anxiety, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2004.

Marra, T.: Dialectical Behavior Therapy in Private Practice, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2005.

Marlatt, A.; Donovan, D.: Relapse Prevention: Maintenance Strategies in the Treatment of Addictive Behaviors, 2nd Ed., New York: The Guilford Press, 2005.

Mauss, I.; Wilhelm, F.; Gross, J.: Autonomic recovery and habituation in social anxiety, in Journal of Psychophysiology, Vol. 40, No. 1, January 2003.

McEwen, B.; Seeman, T.: Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress: Elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load, in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 896, 1999.

McEwen, B: Mood Disorders and Allostatic Load, in Journal of Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 54, 2003.

McEwen, B.; Lasley, E. N.: The End of Stress as We Know It, Washington, DC: The Dana Press, 2003.

McGilchrist, I.: The Master and his Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World, Cambridge, MA: Yale U. Press, 2011.

McKay, M.; Rogers, P.; McKay, J.: When Anger Hurts: Quieting the Storm Within, 2nd Ed., Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2003.

McKay, M.; Wood, J.; Brantley, J.: The Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Workbook, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2007. 

McKay, M.; Fanning, P.; Ona, P. Z.: Mind and Emotions: A Universal Treatment for Emotional Disorders, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2011. 

Mehta, D.; Klengel, T.; Conneely, K.; et al: Childhood maltreatment is associated with distinct genomic and epigenetic profiles in posttraumatic stress disorder, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 20, May 2013; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1217750110

Meichenbaum, D.: Cognitive-Behavior Modification: An Integrative Approach, New York: Springer, 1977.

Merjonen, P.; Pulkki-Raback, L.; et al: Development of adult hostile attitudes: Childhood environment and serotonin receptor gene interactions, in Journal of Personal Relations, Vol. 18, No. 2, June 2011.

Milgram, S.: Obedience to Authority, London: Pinter & Martin, 1974.

Miller, A.: For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child Rearing and the Roots of Violence, London: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1979, 1983.

Miller, A.: Prisoners of Childhood / The Drama of the Gifted Child, New York: Basic Books, 1979, 1996.

Miller, A.: Thou Shalt Not Be Aware: Society’s Betrayal of the Child, London: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1981, 1984, 1998. 

Miller, A.: Breaking Down the Walls of Silence, New York: Dutton/Penguin, 1991.

Miller, A. G.: The Obedience Experiments, New York: Prager, 1984.

Molina, P.: Neurobiology of the Stress Response: Contribution of the Sympathetic Nervous System to the Neuroimmune Axis in Traumatic Injury, in Shock: Injury, Inflammation, and Sepsis: Laboratory and Clinical Approaches, Vol. 24, No. 1, July 2005.

Morey, R.; Gold, A.; et al: Amygdala Volume Changes in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Large Case-Controlled Veterans Group, in Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 69. No. 11, November 2012.

Munich, R.; Allen, J.: Psychiatric and Sociotherapeutic Perspectives on the Difficult-to-Treat Patient, in Psychiatry, Vol. 66, No.4, Winter 2003.  

I clipped the list at the half-way point for the sake of trimming the file to fit this blog's parameters; I will provide the remainder to any legitimate requestor.

No comments:

Post a Comment