Thursday, April 28, 2016

Critical Thinking, Logical Fallacies & the 10 StEPs

Because our most of the people around us used them, most of us grew up having been conditioned, socialized, habituated and normalized to many forms of logical fallacies.

Irrational, illogical, delusional thinking wouldn't be a problem if it didn't -- as heaps of cognitive research have shown -- cause so much communication difficulty, anxiety, depression and general grief. See, for example, this article

Those who go to college to major in science subjects are required to take a course in critical thinking. Many who take that course come to see, hear and otherwise sense how they were normalized to logical fallacies... and develop the ability to see through them. 

Moreover, the cognitive movement in psychotherapy that began in the 1950s with Albert Ellis developed very effective new forms of therapy built on critical thinking to --as is done with the 10 StEPs -- observe to notice to recognize to acknowledge to accept to own to appreciate to understand to digest, discharge and overcome the emotional and behavioral effects of those logical fallacies. 

Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy was the first of the "cognitive-behavioral therapies" or CBTs, and it is still far and away the most effective for many who really get into it. 

Ellis's ten most significant logical fallacies are listed below (as well as at this web page). The page numbers are from Ellis's best-selling book, A Guide to Rational Living.

"One must have love or approval from all the significant people in one's life (101).

"One absolutely must be thoroughly competent, adequate, and achieving or must be competent or talented in some important area (115).

"Other people absolutely must not act obnoxiously and unfairly, and, that when they do, one should blame and damn them, and see them as bad, wicked, or rotten individuals (127).

"One has to see things as being awful, terrible, and catastrophic when one is seriously frustrated or treated unfairly (139).

"One must be miserable when one has pressures and difficult experiences and has little ability to control, and cannot change, one's disturbed feelings (155).

"If something is dangerous or fearsome, one must obsess about it and frantically try to escape from it (163).

"One can easily avoid facing many difficulties and self-responsibilities and still lead a highly fulfilling existence (177).

"One's past remains all-important, and because something once strongly influenced one's life, it has to keep determining one's feelings and behavior today (187).

"It is awful and horrible is one cannot change life's grim facts to suit one's requirements (197).

"One can achieve maximum happiness by inertia and inaction or by passively and un-committedly enjoying oneself (207)."

When I began to observe, notice, recognize, acknowledge, accept, own, appreciate and understand these some time ago, my life began to change really fast. 

For if one can see, hear and sense how one's logical fallacies effect one's emotions and behaviors, one is greatly more empowered by reality to make major changes in their lives. 

It's not our inner children's (see Berne, and Harris) fault. They did not ask to be in-struct-ed, trained, socialized, conditioned, habituated and normalized to thinking the way most people do in the working class culture. And they were certainly not born that way. 

But what I learned was that if I wanted to develop a functional and effective, okay inner parent (see Berne, and Harris) to take care of the boys on my bus, I would have to learn about and be mindful of the logical fallacies those boys were taught to believe.

See other articles on the 10 StEPs at...

http://pairadocks.blogspot.com/2015/04/the-10-steps-of-emotion-processing.html

http://pairadocks.blogspot.com/2016/03/using-10-steps-as-somato-sensory.html

http://pairadocks.blogspot.com/2016/03/i-learned-to-use-first-seven-of-10.html

http://pairadocks.blogspot.com/2016/04/the-10-steps-for-recovery-from.html

References & Resources

Berne, E.: Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy, New York: Random House, 1961.

Berne, E.: Games People Play: The Psychology of Human Relationships / The Basic Handbook of Transactional Analysis, San Francisco: Grove Press, 1964, 1996.

Ellis, A.; Harper, R.: A Guide to Rational Living, North Hollywood, CA: Melvin Powers, 1961.

Ellis, A.; Becker, I.: A Guide to Personal Happiness, North Hollywood, CA: Melvin Powers, 1982.

Ellis, A.; Dryden, W.: The Practice of Rational Emotive Therapy, New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1987.

Ellis, A.: Overcoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and Behaviors: New Directions for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, New York: Promethius Books, 2001.

Harris, T.: I’m Okay—You’re Okay, New York: Harper and Row, 1968.

Ruggiero, V. R.: Beyond Feelings: A Guide to Critical Thinking, 4th Ed., Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing, 1995.


© 2016 by Rodger Garrett; all rights reserved. Links are permitted. Please contact not.moses@outlook.com with comments or questions. Thank you.

Thursday, April 7, 2016

The 10 StEPs for Recovery from the Consensus Trance

Socialization, Normalization and Consensus Consciousness


Radical as some of these notions may seem to the vast majority of us who were in-struct-ed, conditioned, socialized, habituatednormalized and institutionalized to "consensus consciousness," the following facts are inescapable for one who has used the most research-proven and widely-accepted techniques of clinical psychology to overcome his own mind's dysfunctions, as well as with and on behalf of hundreds of others to overcome theirs. 

1) The empirical evidence that supports the cognitive basis of psychopathology (as well as the use of the cognitive psychotherapies to treat it) is overwhelming: Most people who suffer from depression, anxiety, mania, neurosis, psychosis, addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder and various personality disorders do so because they believe things to be the way they are not... and fail to see, hear and otherwise sense the way things actually are.

2) Virtually everyone is at least somewhat disconnected from actual reality via use of various "defense mechanisms." These defense mechanisms are built on beliefs, ideas, ideals, assumptions, presumptions, convictions, misunderstandings, fantasies, prejudices, instructions, commands, rules, regulations, requirements... many of which have become relatively normalized in the common culture as the result of parental, peer and other behavioral modeling. 

3) Emotional distress is caused by specific collections of such belief-based defense mechanisms, aka "cognitive distortions." These defense mechanisms may have been acquired to "protect" us from actual threats of physical, verbal and/or emotional abuse (e.g.: criticism, devaluation, invalidation, covert control, cynical manipulation, intimidation, bullying,  battery, rape) or abandonment (e.g.: rejection, neglect, being ignored, being marginalized, being "excommunicated"). But they often set up "feedback loops" of beliefs, emotions and dysfunctional behavior that cause more problems in never-ending cycles of uncomfortable emotions and ineffective efforts to avoid them.  

4) People who have "psychological problems" tend not to realize, recognize, acknowledge, accept, own, appreciate or understand that their behaviors -- and the beliefs that drive those behaviors -- are the cause of their emotional discomfort, including frustration, resentment, anger, worry, anxiety, sadness, regret, remorse, guilt, shame and grief. 

5) Most people who have "psychological problems" were innocently conditioned, taught, trained, socialized, habituated, accustomed and normalized to believe that they are either entirely responsible for their mental illness... or that other external forces are entirely responsible. They are not able to see, hear or otherwise sense that neither circumstance is absolutely or totally the cause.

6) Most people who suffer from depression, anxiety, mania, neurosis, psychosis, addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder and various personality disorders will begin to recover from such difficulties as they begin to observe to notice to recognize to acknowledge to accept to own to appreciate to understand that they believe things to be the way they are not... and fail to see, hear and otherwise sense the way things actually are.

7) Most people who suffer from depression, anxiety, mania, neurosis, psychosis, addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder and various personality disorders will almost wholly transcend such difficulties when they are consistently and reliably able to see, hear and otherwise sense the way things actually are, as well as see, hear and otherwise sense the way things are believed to be in the consensus trance. 


Understanding the Issues

Firstly, we need to define some relevant terms as to what they actually mean with respect to unobservable mental operations and the effects of those operations on observable sensations, feelings, emotions and behavior.

Grasp of the definitions is helpful (some say "crucial") for those who wish to escape from the painful effects of the unconscious beliefs, thoughts, ideas, instructions, codes, rules, regulations, requirements, assumptions, presumptions, prejudices in their minds. Beliefs, thoughts, instructions, etc., that influence the interpretations, evaluations, appraisals, analyses, assessments, judgments and attributions of meaning that govern their emotions and behaviors.   

So, let's start with Tart's concept of "consensus consciousness" (or, as it is more popularly known, the "consensus trance"):

"Together, human groups agree on which of their perceptions should be admitted to awareness (hence, consensus), then they train each other to see the world in that way and only in that way (hence trance)."

above from http://www.cantrip.org/charles_tart.html -- which should definitely be at least scanned before one moves on here -- as well as http://www.amazon.com/Charles-T.-Tart/e/B000AQ4UXC


socialization

a continuing process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position.


the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture


the lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs, values and ideologies



authority

the power to give orders or make decisions : the power or right to direct or control someone or something

the confident quality of someone who knows a lot about something or who is respected or obeyed by other people

a quality that makes something seem true or real

power to influence or command thought, opinion, or behavior 

grounds, warrant <had excellent authority for believing the claim>; convincing force <lent authority to the performance>




social proof

a psychological phenomenon where people assume the actions of others in an attempt to reflect correct behavior for a given situation. This effect is prominent in ambiguous social situations where people are unable to determine the appropriate mode of behavior, and is driven by the assumption that surrounding people possess more knowledge about the situation.


Social proof is the concept that people will conform to the actions of others under the assumption that those actions are reflective of the correct behavior.



normalization

...social processes through which ideas and actions come to be seen as "normal" and become taken-for-granted or 'natural' in everyday life. ... the construction of an idealized norm of conduct. The effects of social influence can be seen in the tendency of large groups to conform to choices which may be either correct or mistaken, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as herd behavior.



paradigm

...a standard, perspective, or set of ideas. A paradigm is a way of looking at something.


a model or pattern for something that may be copied

a theory or a group of ideas about how something should be done, made, or thought about

a philosophical and theoretical framework of a school or discipline within which theories, laws, and generalizations and the experiments performed in support of them are formulated; 

broadly:  a philosophical or theoretical framework of any kind


a framework containing the basic assumptions, ways of thinking, and methodology that are commonly accepted by members of a community. 

such a cognitive framework shared by members of any discipline or group



consensus

general agreement... "a consensus of opinion among judges" ... synonyms: agreement, harmony, concurrence, accord, unity, unanimity, solidarity ...

a formal concord: "there was consensus among delegates" ... general opinion, majority opinion, common view: "the consensus was that they should act"

general agreement :  unanimity

the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned 

group solidarity in sentiment and belief


majority of opinion: The consensus of the group was that they should meet twice a month.

general agreement or concord; harmony.


a ​generally accepted opinion or ​decision among a ​group of ​people: The general consensus in the ​office is that he can't do his ​job. Could we reach a consensus on this ​matter? Let's take a ​vote. We were ​unable to ​reach a consensus about ​membership fees. There is little consensus about the ​issue of ​smacking children. We ​managed to get a consensus about not ​smoking in the ​office.



consciousness

the normal state of being awake and able to understand what is happening around you

a person's mind and thoughts

knowledge that is shared by a group of people



What consensus is NOT:


empirical evidence

based on testing or experience

originating in or based on observation or experience <empirical data>

relying on experience or observation alone often without due regard for system and theory <an empirical basis for the theory>

capable of being verified or disproved by observation or experiment<empirical laws>


Relying on or derived from observation or experiment: empirical results that supported the hypothesis.

Verifiable or provable by means of observation or experiment: empirical laws.

Guided by practical experience and not theory, especially in medicine.


"...a collective term for the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation ...  information that justifies a belief in the truth or falsity of a claim ... observation, experience, and experiment serve as neutral arbiters between competing theories..."



What consensus consciousness is NOT:


perception

the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses. "the normal limits to human perception"

the state of being or process of becoming aware of something through the senses. "the perception of pain"

formal cognizance

Though the word "perception" is confusingly misused in the vernacular to mean the exact opposite

a way of regarding, understanding, or interpreting something; a mental impression. "Hollywood's perception of the tastes of the American public"

synonyms:

Clearly, the first two definition and list of synonyms above refer to empirical process, while the latter definition and list of synonyms refers to the operation of rational processes that often have little -- if anything -- to do with empirical observation.


a result of perceiving :  observation (see perceive)

a mental image :  concept

obsolete :  consciousness

awareness of the elements of environment through physical sensation<color perception>

physical sensation interpreted in the light of experience

quick, acute, and intuitive cognition :  appreciation

a capacity for comprehension


the act or faculty of perceiving, or apprehending by means of the senses or of the mind; cognition; understanding.

immediate or intuitive recognition or appreciation, as of moral, psychological, or aesthetic qualities; insight; intuition; discernment:
an artist of rare perception.

the result or product of perceiving, as distinguished from the act of perceiving; percept.

Psychology. a single unified awareness derived from sensory processes while a stimulus is present.



Linking the Definitions Together

Terrific. Now that we have the definitions down, we can proceed with connecting the dots between them more or less as the authors listed at the end hereof have done (at least partially) over the last 75 years.

Is it evident yet that if one is unaware of and/or does not accurately understand the concepts of...

1) authority,
2) social proof,
3) socialization,
4) normalization,
5) paradigm, 
6) consensus,
7) consciousness,
8) empirical evidence (or lack thereof), and
8) accurate perception (or lack thereof)...

that it is likely that one will

1) not only be unable to grasp the meaning and implications of consensus consciousness, one will also...

2) be very likely to be unable to see beyond or outside the paradigm (or "box") of consensus consciousness?

Because if one relies on unexamined authority, social proof, consensus and unconscious paradigms to the exclusion of accurate perception and (resulting) empirical evidence, one can expect to be socialized and normalized to the "consciousness" (or paradigms) of those who establish, control and maintain the consensus. For example,

1) If one identifies oneself as a fan of a particular type of popular music and relies on social proof, consensus and paradigms from within that music culture to the exclusion of accurate perception and (resulting) empirical evidence, one can expect to agree with any new version of reality offered by a peer or authority from that musical culture.

2) If one is a member of a particular religious sect and relies on social proof, consensus and paradigms from within the sect culture to the exclusion of accurate perception and (resulting) empirical evidence, one can expect to agree with any new version of reality offered by a sect member or authority.

3) If one is a member of a particular political party and relies on social proof, consensus and paradigms from within the party culture to the exclusion of accurate perception and (resulting) empirical evidence, one can expect to agree with any new version of reality offered by a party peer or party.

In fact, if one identifies consciously or unconsciously with any particular group or culture, one can expect to agree with, support and act upon the points of view expressed by peers and authorities from within that cultural paradigm regardless of whether what they assert is factual or not. That is the nature of social proof.

The upshots on unconscious reliance upon authority, social proof and unconscious paradigm without resort to accurate perception and/or empirical evidence is that one may believe in gross falsehoods. And if one relies habitually on authority, social proof and unconscious paradigm, it is likely that he or she will slip into the paradigm of the consensus trance.

That wouldn't be a problem if the beliefs, thoughts, instructions, codes, rules, regulations, requirements, assumptions, presumptions, and prejudices commonly found in the consensus trance were (even relatively) accurate. But those beliefs, etc., are so often at least partially misleading and sometime just plain grossly erroneous that relying upon them as guides to functional behavior is patently risky.

How can one tell if one is too far IN to the consensus trance?

Based on observing hundreds of people who had fallen into the paradigm of consensus consciousness for more than 35 years (since I studied my own way out of a large group awareness cult in the 1970s and then recovered from alcohol and drug addiction in the 1980s), I have to assert the following:

1) Life will be very painful.

2) One will experience a great deal of emotionally loaded mental conflict because they have beliefs that do not square with each other. 

3) One will repeat the same mistakes again and again expecting different results.

4) So-called "intimate" relationships will not be, and they will either crumble... or continue with relentless emotional discomfort.

How can one get out of the consensus trance?

Any of several cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based cognitive psychotherapies will be helpful, including those listed immediately below:

Dialectical Behavior Therapy

Acceptance & Commitment Therapy

Mind-Body Bridging Therapy

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy

Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Schema Therapy

But it has been my experience with the use of all of these psychotherapies that...

1) they only produce the desired, emotion-relieving results so long as they continue to be used at least every few days,

2) the skills one acquires from these therapies may be too complex to recall and/or accurately utilize after even a few weeks of disuse, and

3) the skills are usually grossly under-utilized to deal with the challenges in patients' lives which they do not see as "psychological."

I began to observe to notice to recognize to acknowledge to accept to own to appreciate to understand, both conceptually and experientially, that this was the case several years ago. Some time later (while I was studying the "non-traditional" psychotherapeutic techniques used many years ago by Siddartha Gautama, George Gurdjieff and Jiddu Krishnamurti in relationship to family and cultural influences on the development of schizophrenia) I began formulate a solution

As did the Buddha, Gurdjieff and Krishnamurti with their methods, I began to use those 10 StEPs of Emotion Processing myself, refine them... and then to teach them to others.

One can read about the simple method -- and even pretty much learn how to use it at no charge -- at the following links:





Resources

Altemeyer, R.: The Authoritarian Specter, Boston: Harvard University Press, 1996.

Altemeyer, R.: The Authoritarians, Charleston, SC: Lulu, 2006.

Bateson, G., Jackson, D., Haley, J.; et al: Perceval’s Narrative: A Patient’s Account of his Psychosis, Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1961.

Bateson, G.; Jackson, D.; Haley, J.; Weakland, J.: Toward a Theory of Schizophrenia, in Journal of Behavioral Science, Vol. 1, 1956.

Beck, A.: Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders, New York: Penguin-Meridian, 1976.

Beck, A.; Freeman, A.: Cognitive Theory of the Personality Disorders, New York: Guilford Press, 1990.

Beck, A.; Wright, F.; Newman, C.; Liese, B.: Cognitive Therapy of Substance Abuse, New York: The Guilford Press, 1993.  

Beck, A.: Prisoners Of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence, New York: Harper-Collins, 1999.

Block, S.; Block, C.: Come to Your Senses: Demystifying the Mind-Body Connection, New York: Atria Books / Beyond Words (Simon & Schuster), 2005, 2007.  

Block, S.; Block, C.: Mind-Body Workbook for PTSD, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2010. 

Block, S.; Block, C.: Mind-Body Workbook for Anger, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2013. 

Bowen, M.: A Family Concept of Schizophrenia, in Jackson, D., ed.: The Etiology of Schizophrenia, London: Basic Books, 1960.

Cialdini, R.: Influence: Science and Practice, 4th Ed., New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

Cooper, M.: Existential Therapies, London: Sage Publications, 2003.

Craig, A. D.: How do you feel? Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body, in National review of Neuroscience, Vol. 3, No. 8, August 2002.

Damasio, A.: Feelings of Emotion and the Self, in Annals of the New York Academy of Science, Vol. 100, No. 1, October 2003.

Davidson, R.; Lutz, A.: Buddha’s Brain: Neuroplasticity and Meditation, in IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan 2008.

Deikman, A.: Deautomatization and the Mystical Experience, in Psychiatry, Vol. 29, 1966.

Deikman, A.: Personal Freedom: On Finding Your Way to the Real World, New York: Bantam, 1976.

Deikman, A.: The Observing Self: Mysticism and Psychotherapy, Boston: Beacon Press, 1982.

Deikman, A.: The Wrong Way Home: Uncovering the Patterns of Cult Behavior in American Society, Boston: Beacon Press, 1990.

Deikman, A.: Meditations on a Blue Vase (Collected Papers), Napa CA: Fearless Books, 2014.

Deikman, A.: Them and Us: Cult Thinking and the Terrorist Threat, Berkeley CA: Bay Tree, 2003.

De Mello, A.: Awareness: The Perils and Opportunities of Reality, New York: Doubleday / Image, 1990.

Dyer, W.: Your Erroneous Zones, New York: Avon Books, 1977, 1993.

Ellis, A.; Harper, R.: A Guide to Rational Living, North Hollywood, CA: Melvin Powers, 1961.

Ellis, A.; Becker, I.: A Guide to Personal Happiness, North Hollywood, CA: Melvin Powers, 1982.

Ellis, A.; Dryden, W.: The Practice of Rational Emotive Therapy, New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1987.

Ellis, A.: Overcoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and Behaviors: New Directions for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, New York: Promethius Books, 2001.

Esterson, A.: The Leaves of Spring: Schizophrenia, Family and Sacrifice, London: Tavistock, 1972.

Esterson, A.; Cooper, D.; Laing, R.; Results of Family-oriented Therapy with Hospitalized Schizophrenics, in British Medical Journal, Vol. 2, 1965. 

Flavell, J.: Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry, in American Psychologist, Vol. 34, No. 10, Oct 1979.

Freud, A.: The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense, London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1937.

Fromm, E.: Escape from Freedom, New York: Avon, 1965.

Fruzzetti, A.; Shenk, C.; Hoffman, P.: Family interaction and the development of borderline personality disorder: A transactional model, in Development and Pathology, Vol. 17, 2005. 

Galanter, M.: Cults: Faith, Healing and Coercion, New York: Guilford Press, 1989.

Goleman, D.: Emotional Intelligence, New York: Bantam, 1980.

Goleman, D.: The Meditative Mind: The Varieties of Meditative Experience, New York: Putnam & Sons, 1988.

Gurdjieff, G.: Life is Real Only Then, When I Am, New York: Viking, 1974, 1991.

Hart, W.: The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation as Taught by S. N. Goenka, San Francisco: Harper-Collins, 1987.

Hassan, S.: Freedom of Mind: Helping Loved Ones Leave Controlling People, Cults & Beliefs, Newton, MA: Freedom of Mind Press, 2012.

Hayes, S.; Strosahl, K.; Preston, K.: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An Experiential Approach to Behavior Change, New York: Guilford Press, 1999, 2003.

Hayes, S.; Follete, V.; Linehan, M.: Mindfulness and Acceptance: Expanding the Cognitive-Behavioral Tradition, New York: Guilford Press, 2004.

Hayes, S.; Smith, S.: Get Out of Your Mind and Into Your Life: The New Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2005.

Henry, J.: Culture Against Man, New York: Random House, 1964.

Henry, J.: Pathways to Madness, New York: Random House, 1965.

Henry, J.: On Sham, Vulnerability and other forms of Self-Destruction, London: Allan Lane / Penguin Press, 1973. 

Hoffer, E.: The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements, New York: Harper and Row, 1951, 1966. 

Hogben, M.; Byrne, D.: Using social learning theory to explain individual differences in human sexuality, Albany, NY: University of Albany, 1997.

Jackson, D. (ed.): The Etiology of Schizophrenia: Genetics / Physiology / Psychology / Sociology, London: Basic Books, 1960.

Jackson, D.: Myths of Madness: New Facts for Old Fallacies, New York: Macmillan & Co., 1964.

Jaynes, J.: The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, Boston: Houghton-Mifflin & Co., 1976.

Kabat-Zinn, J.: Full Catastrophe Living: Uasing the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain and Illness, New York: Dell, 1990.

Kabat-Zinn, J.: Mindfulness Meditation: Health benefits of an ancient Buddhist practice, in Goleman, D.; Gurin, J., editors: Mind/Body Medicine, New York: Consumer Reports Books, 1993.

Kabat-Zinn, J.: Wherever You Go, htere You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life: New York: Hyperion, 2004.

Kabat-Zinn, J.: Coming to Our Senses, Healing Ourselves and the World Through Mindfulness, New York: Hyperion, 2005.

King, A.; Erickson, T.; Giardino, N.; et al: A Pilot Study of Group Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for Combat Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), in Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 30, No. 7, July 2013; DOI:10.1002/da.22104

Kohlberg, L.: The Psychology of Moral Development: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages, San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1984.

Koopmans, M.: Schizophrenia and the Family: Double Bind Theory Revisited, presented at the National Council on Family Relations, 1995; the American Psychological Assn., 1995; and the International Congress of Psychology, Montreal, 1996.

Korzybski, A.: Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics, 4th Ed., New York: Institute of General Semantics, 1958.

Kramer, J.: The Passionate Mind: A Manual for Living Creatively with One's Self, Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1974.

Kramer, J.; Alstad, D.: The Guru Papers: Masks of Authoritarian Power, Berkeley, CA: Frog, Ltd., 1993.

Kramer, J.; Alstad, D.: The Passionate Mind Revisited: Expanding Personal and Social Awareness, Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 2009. 

Krishnamurti, J.: Education and the Significance of Life, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, (1953) 1975.

Krishnamurti, J.; Luytens, M.: The Krishnamurti Reader, New York: Penguin Arcana, (1954, 1963, 1964) 1970.

Krishnamurti, J.; Huxley, A.: The First & Last Freedom, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, (1954) 1975.

Krishnamurti, J.: As One Is: To Free the Mind from All Conditioning, Prescott AZ: Hohm Press, (1955) 2007.

Krishnamurti, J.; Rajagopal, D.: Commentaries on Life, 1st Series, Wheaton IL: Theosophical Publishing, (1956) 1973.

Krishnamurti, J.: Rajagopal, D.: Commentaries on Life, 2nd Series, Wheaton IL: Theosophical Publishing, (1956) 1976.

Krishnamurti, J.: Rajagopal, D.: Commentaries on Life, 3rd Series, Wheaton IL: Theosophical Publishing, (1956) 1967.

Krishnamurti, J.; Luytens, M.: Freedom from the Known, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1969.

Krishnamurti, J.; Luytens, M.: The Second Penguin Krishnamurti Reader, New York: Penguin Arcana, 1970.

Krishnamurti, J.: Inward Revolution: Bringing About Radical Change in the World, London: Shambala, 1971, 2003.

Krishnamurti, J.: Krishnamurti’s Notebook, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, (1961) 1976.

Krishnamurti, J.: The Awakening of Intelligence, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1973, 1987.

Krishnamurti, J.: On God, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992.

Krishnamurti, J.: On Fear, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992.

Krishnamurti, J.: On Love and Loneliness, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993.

Krishnamurti, J.: The Book of Life: Daily Meditations with Krishnamurti, New York: HarperCollins, 1995.

Krishnamurti, J.: Total Freedom: The Essential Krishnamurti, New York: HarperCollins, 1996.

Kuijsten, M.: Reflections on the Dawn of Consciousness: Julian Jaynes’s Bicameral Mind Theory Revisited, Henderson, NV: Julian Jaynes Society, 2006.

Laing, R. D.: The Divided Self, London: Tavistock, 1959.

Laing, R. D.; Esterson, A.: Sanity, Madness and the Family, London: Tavistock, 1964.

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